Rosa Luxemburg – Wikipedia – Rosa Luxemburg (also Rozalia Luxenburg; Polish: Róża Luksemburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist, anti-war activist, and revolutionary socialist of Polish-Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen. She was, successively, a member of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL), the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD).
In 1915, after the SPD supported German involvement in World War I, she and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartacus League (Spartakusbund), which eventually became the KPD. During the November Revolution she co-founded the newspaper Die Rote Fahne (“The Red Flag”), the central organ of the Spartacist movement.
She considered the Spartacist uprising of January 1919 a blunder, but supported it as events unfolded. Friedrich Ebert’s majority Social Democratic government crushed the revolt and the Spartakusbund by sending in the Freikorps (government-sponsored paramilitary groups consisting mostly of World War I veterans). Freikorps troops captured and executed Luxemburg and Liebknecht. Luxemburg’s body was thrown in the Landwehr Canal in Berlin.
Due to her pointed criticism of both the Leninist and the more moderate social democratic schools of socialism, Luxemburg has had a somewhat ambivalent reception among scholars and theorists of the political left. Nonetheless, some have regarded Luxemburg and Liebknecht as martyrs of the socialist cause.
Socialist revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg born – Mar 05, 1871 – HISTORY.com – Rosa Luxemburg, the leader of a revolutionary faction of the German socialist party during World War I, is born on this day in 1871, in Zamos, Poland, an area that at the time was under Russian control.
The youngest of five children in a lower-middle-class Jewish family, Luxemburg became interested in radical politics at a young age. In 1889, she left Poland and the repressive czarist regime of Alexander III (the predecessor to Czar Nicholas II) and went to Zurich, Switzerland, where she studied natural science and political economy. In 1898, Luxemburg married a German worker, Gustav Lubeck, thus attaining German citizenship. She settled in Berlin, where she affiliated herself with the German Social Democratic Party (known as the SPD), then the most prominent organization of international socialism in the world.
In the years leading up to World War I, Luxemburg became increasingly radical in her ideology, advocating a general strike as the catalyst that would radicalize the workers and bring about an international socialist revolution. She and her fellow leftists in the SPD strongly opposed German participation in the war, seeing it as an imperialist conflict that would not benefit the general population. This alienated them from the party’s leadership, which supported the war effort in the hopes that reform would follow a German victory.