Yet, during this same period, we also observe the growth of Ottoman administrative apparatuses, increased government involvement in peripheral areas such as Eastern Anatolia and the Arab provinces, and the development of new ministries to address issues of public works, education, health, forestry, and settlement. This even included military campaigns to expand Ottoman territory into regions such as modern-day Yemen. Beyond the Ottoman domains, we also witness an increased Ottoman presence both in Europe and also in many parts of Asia and the Indian Ocean that could be considered part of the greater Muslim world. Many even point to a form of “Ottoman colonialism” practiced on the frontiers of the empire.In Episode #143 of Ottoman History Podcast, Mostafa Minawi discusses the Ottoman activities in one such border region where this expansion of state influence interfaced with the claims of European colonial powers and their encroachment on historically Ottoman regions. During the “Scramble for Africa” period beginning in the 1880s, the Ottomans vied for influence in the region stretching from the coast of modern-day Libya to Lake Chad. This area, which had never been subject to formal Ottoman governing institutions but shared economic and cultural links with the other provinces, became part of the Ottoman claim to a share in the European partition of Africa.