Joseph Auguste Anténor Firmin (18 October 1850 – 19 September 1911), better known as simply Anténor Firmin, was Firmin’s work, first published in 1885, argued the opposite, that “all men are endowed with the same qualities and the same faults, without distinction of color or anatomical form. The races are equal”
known for his book De l’Égalité des Races Humaines (English: On the Equality of Human Races), which was published as a rebuttal to French writer Count Arthur de Gobineau‘s workEssai sur l’inegalite des Races Humaines (English: Essay on the Inequality of Human Races). Gobineau’s book asserted the superiority of the Aryan race and the inferiority of blacks and other people of color.
Firmin pioneered the integration of race and physical anthropology and may be the first black anthropologist. His work was recognized not only in Haiti but also among scholars of Africans as an early work of négritude. He had an impact on Jean Price-Mars, the founder of Haitianethnology and on American anthropologist Melville Herskovits.
Born in Cap-Haïtien, Firmin worked in teaching, politics, and diplomacy. He founded Le Messager du Nord, a political and literary publication.
De l’Égalité des Races Humaines – published 1885
Haïti et la France – published 1891
Une Défense – published 1892
Diplomate et Diplomatie – published 1898
M. Roosevelt, Président des États-Unis et la République d’Haïti – published 1905
Lettres de Saint-Thomas – published 1910