All Peoples Are Equal Under the Sky

Joseph Auguste Anténor Firmin (18 October 1850 – 19 September 1911), better known as simply Anténor Firmin, was Firmin’s work, first published in 1885, argued the opposite, that “all men are endowed with the same qualities and the same faults, without distinction of color or anatomical form. The races are equal” 

(pp. 450). He was marginalized at the time for his beliefs that all human races were equal.[1]Haitian anthropologist, journalist, and politician. Firmin is best 

known for his book De l’Égalité des Races Humaines (English: On the Equality of Human Races), which was published as a rebuttal to French writer Count Arthur de Gobineau‘s workEssai sur l’inegalite des Races Humaines (English: Essay on the Inequality of Human Races). Gobineau’s book asserted the superiority of the Aryan race and the inferiority of blacks and other people of color.

Firmin pioneered the integration of race and physical anthropology and may be the first black anthropologist. His work was recognized not only in Haiti but also among scholars of Africans as an early work of négritude. He had an impact on Jean Price-Mars, the founder of Haitianethnology and on American anthropologist Melville Herskovits.[2]

Born in Cap-Haïtien, Firmin worked in teaching, politics, and diplomacy. He founded Le Messager du Nord, a political and literary publication.

De l’Égalité des Races Humaines – published 1885

Haïti et la France – published 1891

Une Défense – published 1892

Diplomate et Diplomatie – published 1898

M. Roosevelt, Président des États-Unis et la République d’Haïti – published 1905

Lettres de Saint-Thomas – published 1910

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